The Price of Water: Development, Situation and Trends [2013-2018]

-- a note from _kt75

Worldwide, the most recent history was characterised by a drastic increase in the price of water [1], [2]. There exist a number of diverse (partially contradictory) price drivers: investment into (defective) supply and treatment infrastructure, installation of new infrastructure (incl. expansion of existing infrastructure), real and/or artificially induced water scarcity/depletion of natural water resources, failed financial speculations [3], targeted non-investment into water supply infrastructure to, for example, increase the sales volume of bottled water, etc. In addition to this there exists still a comprehensive lack of awareness on the limited resource water [4]. The rise of the price of water (along with an increase of the price of water rights) is a common phenomenon [5]-[8], but there exist particularly sensitive regions that may face particular increases in water prices:

# Near Eeast (incl. Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran): an average increase by up to +20% is expected. Key drivers are the depletion of natural groundwater resources (Disi-Aquifer), civil war (Syria), missing infrastructure investments (Iran, due to international sanctions; Iraq, due to the prevailing post war conditions).
# Africa (incl. Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia): an average increase between +10 - +35% is expected, primarily due to: civil war conditions (Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Somalia), missing infrastructure investments (incl. Nigeria). Rather stable regions like Cameroon are expected to face rather modest price developments.
# North America: In particular the Mid-West regions of the US are subject to a rather drastic depletion of natural water resources (aquifers) [10]. Along with necessary infrastructure investments an average price increase between +5 - +15% is expected for the next years.
# Asia: China and India, the key booming regions in Asia suffer from a number of issues that result in water price increases: pollution, missing investments (also in relation to the exploding population), failed investments. For the next years an average price increase of more than +20% is expected.

References: [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10],

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